Fertilizing Japanese Maples

Michael J. McGroarty
Perry, Ohio 44081  Copyright 2011

Fertilizing Japanese maples, how and when should it be done?

You have to ask yourself why you have the compulsion to fertilize your Japanese maple.  Is the tree looking sickly?  Would you like it to grow more quickly?  Or are you just trying to give it the best care that you can?  Japanese maples are truly one of most low maintenance plants you can have in your landscape.  They don’t ask for or require much of your attention.  So with that said, sometimes it’s better to leave well enough alone.

Is fertilizing a Japanese maple a good thing or a bad thing?

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In many cases fertilizing these low maintenance plants can do more harm than good, unless you really understand how and why fertilizers work.  Most commercial fertilizers contain three primary components; nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.  Lawn fertilizers are very high in nitrogen and low in phosphorous and potassium.  Lawn grasses are vigorous growers and need pruning (mowing) every few days.  Therefore they use, and can tolerate, a much higher amount of nitrogen than most other plants in the landscape.  It’s the nitrogen in the fertilizer that stimulates vegetative growth.   A typical analysis of a lawn fertilizer would be 18-5-5 meaning that the fertilizer contains 18% nitrogen, 5% phosphorous and 5% potassium.  That’s a really high amount of nitrogen and should only be used on lawns.

Phosphorous helps plants to produce a better crop of flowers or fruit, but what phosphorous really does is help the plant process all of the nutrients in the soil.  A plant that is lacking in phosphorous will look sickly and be stunted because the process of photosynthesis will not be working correctly.  However, in my forty years as a gardener I’ve never had to deliberately make an adjustment to the amount of phosphorous available to any of my plants.  So be careful not to read too much into this rather technical explanation of fertilizer components.  Phosphorous also helps to establish strong root systems.

Potassium also helps plants utilize the other nutrients they need for vigor.  Potassium actually gives plants stamina and helps them to produce better fruit.  Potassium more or less regulates how much of each nutrient the plant is able or allowed to absorb at any given time.

A typical garden fertilizer might have an analysis of 14-14-14 which is equal parts of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.  But what’s really important to understand is these types of fertilizer are very quick release.  Which means that as soon as you apply the fertilizer and it gets watered in, it will release 100% of it’s chemical components immediately, all at one time.  Garden fertilizers are usually applied in the spring before the garden is planted and they are worked into the top three to five inches of the soil.  This type of application helps to increase the nutrient levels in the soil. Since no garden plants are present at the time of the application, there is no chance of damaging plants with too much fertilizer.  By the time the plants are in place the levels of nitrogen and other nutrients in the soil have leveled off to a safe level.

So with all of that said, let’s think about Japanese maples and why we should or should not fertilize them.  First of all, it really doesn’t take much to make or keep a Japanese maple happy.  Here’s what they like.  They like good, rich topsoil that is high in organic matter and drains well.  They like sunshine, but often appreciate a little shade to give them a break from the sun for at least part of the day.  Here’s what they don’t like.  They don’t like heavy, wet soil that does not drain well.  They don’t like wet feet.  The soil they are planted in should be moist, not wet.  When it rains or they are watered, the excess water should drain away quickly.  They do not like, nor can they handle large amounts or sudden bursts of nitrogen.

A Japanese maple is a very slow growing plant which is why they cannot process large amounts of nitrogen.   I don’t know, maybe I’m a little wacko but I think about things like corn versus Japanese maples.  These are the kind of things that amaze me as a gardener.  You can plant a kernel of corn in the spring and by the fourth of July you have a plant that is knee high, by mid August the plant is five or six feet tall and loaded with edible ears of corn.  A plant like that needs and can use large amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.  A Japanese maple on the other hand can take up to two years just to germinate from a seed and might only grow a few inches in it’s first growing season.  Just something to think about.

So . . . should you fertilize your Japanese maples?  If your tree is planted in really good soil that drains well then there really is probably no good reason to fertilize them. I never fertilize any plants in my landscape except my roses.  And the only reason they get fertilized is because I treat them with a three in one product to keep the bugs and disease away, and it contains some fertilizer.  If you mulch them, use an organic mulch like hardwood bark mulch that eventually breaks down into really valuable organic matter.

Now, with all of that said, if you want to fertilize your Japanese maple this is how you do so.  First, consider a fertilizer that is 100% organic.  Milorganite, or some type of fish emulsion fertilizer. Milorganite can be difficult to find and should not be used on a vegetable garden because it is made from granulated sewage sludge, but it really does work and it’s safe for non food types of plants.  Or you can use a slow release fertilizer like Osmocote.  And this is where it gets confusing so I’ll explain it this way.

A typical garden fertilizer will have an analysis of 14-14-14 and once applied it takes just days for all of those components to release into the soil.

Osmocote will also have an analysis of 14-14-14 but the fertilizer pellets are coated in such a way that it takes three to four months for the fertilizer to completely release.  So you can think of it as a slow, safe drip of fertilizer applied to your plants.  In the nursery industry slow release fertilizers such as this are the only thing we use on our plants.  Especially those growing in containers.

Make sure you understand the difference.  They are both 14-14-14 but one is safe for Japanese maples, the other one will kill them.  I can’t be any more blunt than that.

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41 thoughts on “Fertilizing Japanese Maples

  1. Pingback: Japanese Maple Planting Tips

  2. Bernadette on said:

    I moved into this home where there is very hard soil. Needless to say the Japanese maple looks awful. Cani try to loosen soil around roots and add new top soil?

    • Mike on said:


      If that means doing root damage to the tree wait until the tree is completely dormant. Be careful not to create a situation where water can run in by the roots and not get out.

  3. Mike H on said:

    I live in California with very heavy clay. One way to get around the issue is to use an acid planting mix with the soil and mound the plant up partially above ground level to promote drainage. If left in a new ground level hole then it will often not drain well. Do all transplants when dormant.

  4. Shawn on said:

    I live on the Jersey Shore and my Japanese Maple was
    hit by Hurricane Sandy. I am trying to nurse it back to
    health and save it. I applied gypsum around it and I
    need to know whether to fertilize it. It’s leaves are
    pretty much gone. Should I fertilize it with slow
    release fertilizer Osmocote or just leave it alone.
    We have had record temperatures here, in the 90’s.
    How often should I water the tree?

    Thank you!


    • Mike on said:

      Just leave it alone, keep it watered once a week when it’s hot out. Give it a chance to fix itself.

  5. Pingback: Transplanting Japanese Maple Trees in 3 Easy Steps

  6. stacy on said:

    Glade to get this info. I have mine planted by the kids pool area and this might not be a good spot because of the water. So I will be replanting the Japanese Maple tomorrow. Thanks Mike 😉

  7. Mike T. on said:

    Hi Mike, what about a little aged steer, goat, or chicken
    manure mixed well into the planting site and a little bone meal added to the maple hole? Thanks for the info and support you give. Mike in Seattle.

  8. James M. Dover on said:

    Live north of Houston, in Willis, Texas. Planted Japanese maple in well drained soil in early spring, but seems summer heat/humidity takes a toll on tree. It began dropping leaves until a sunshade was placed over it. Now seems stable but unsure if desirable to fertilize or whether it will survive in this climate. Any suggestions?

  9. Kenneth Smith on said:

    I have gone through the website and think I did it just at the right time,my tree had started to throw leaves and panic set in. It is in a plastic pot and has been since I got it six or seven years ago, my wife and I bought it for my first granddaughters birth. I then made the mistake of feeding the tree as it was starting to throw leaves after two months the leaf tips started to brown and I couldn’t understand why, luckily I was able to remove the feed I had put on the tree so I am hoping that this will stop anymore leaves going brown. Fingers crossed. THANKS. Great site.

  10. Francisco Julich on said:

    Hello Mike, I use to my seedlings 3 parts of bark an 1 of compost. Is it take a excess of organic matter? It would be a problem to my japanese maples?
    My seedling just dry leaves, it just happens, and I do not why it happens.
    Thank you. Your site is awesome.

    • Mike on said:


      As long as your medium is draining, drying out between waterings it should be fine. You can always add some perlite to the mix to lighten it up and make it breath better.

  11. Priscilla on said:

    Hi Mike,
    My 15 year old Japanese Maple in Northern CA had a broken water main below it. The plumbers had to cut roots to get to the pipe below the tree. The hole is filled back up with soil now and the pipe repaired. This took place at the end of November when the tree was probably dormant. Should I do something to help it along? It won’t warm up now until around March.

    • Mike on said:


      No, the most important thing is that the hole is completely filled so there are no air pockets. Don’t fertilize it or anything like that, it should be fine. Give it all the time it needs to recover, it should be fine.

  12. Jay on said:

    Hi, Mike!

    I am from sunny Melbourne Located in Victoria Australia. I have a worm farm producing liquid fertilizer and some inch high Japanese maples seedlings growing. Are these two a good mix along with the slow release Osmocote? or should I just stick with water?

    Thanks Jay.

    • Mike on said:


      Some worm tea is fine, but keep in mind that Japanese maples grow slow and cannot use a lot of fertilizer. That’s why I like the Osmocote because the release of nitrogen is controlled.

  13. tracy on said:

    Hi Mike
    this is really helpful. i’m in Northern California, and have really heavy clay soil. i’m translplanting 3 JM’s because i put them in the wrong place initially, and the sun burned the leaves. i understand your guidelines for not amending the clay soil, but i’m concerned that they won’t be able to root into the soil if it’s clay. i’ve had some holes dug that are very deep and wide, for about a 12-18 in root ball. this now seems excessive.
    my questions: really REALLY no amendments to the clay soil it’s going into? what kind of topsoil do you recommend, that you mention needs to be mounded for drainage?
    should i prune them a bit just before i transplant them?
    wish me luck! thanks in advance for your advice.

    • Mike on said:


      Definitely transplant them while they are dormant. More importantly than anything in your situation, plant them high, with the crown of the root ball at least 6″ above grade. Use the clay to fill the bottom half of the hole so water cannot stand in there forever. Then you can ammend the clay with topsoil that you use to back fill around the raised root ball.

      Most importantly, when it rains the water has to run away from the roots of your trees and never stand around the roots or the soil remain soggy. Roots need to be able to transfer oxygen through the soil to the roots. Standing water prevents that from happening.

      I don’t think you need to prune them. Plants make a root inducing chemical called Auxin, think I spelled that correctly, at the tips of the branches. I’ve transplanted very large, well established Japanese maples with zero pruning and have had great success.

  14. Yanni on said:

    You mention two fertilizers in the end which both seem ok in the end of your post. Then this statement

    “the other one will kill them”…

    Which will kill them?

    • Mike on said:


      Most general garden fertilizers are fast, or immediate release. A quick release garden fertilizer will for sure kill Japanese maple and most other ornamental plants. We usually specially formulated slow release fertilizer that take anywhere from three months to nine months to fully release. A slow release that you can buy at most big box stores is Osmocote, but be sure to make sure it says slow or timed release for a period of 3 to 4 months.

      Typical 14-14-14 garden fertilizer sells for $10 or $12 a bag. We buy a 14-14-14 slow release and pay $60 to $90 a bag. That’s the difference.

  15. Bobbie A Stuck on said:

    I have a Japanese Red Maple that is located on property that I rent to tenants. Tenants want it moved because of mowing grass. This spring it now is infested with inch worms. Tree is located in Raleigh, NC and temperatures have been varied between freezing and 70’s. Can I properly move the tree and plant it in a container to grow. I will be taking it to Chesapeake Bay area in Virginia where it is 8 degrees cooler. My mother planted it and she has passed away and want to keep it. Thanks in advance.

  16. Sharon Nyberg on said:

    I have 3 Maples. One is low to the ground with a wide circumstance and is beautiful. I have 2 more that grow higher and bigger but look awful. They were beautiful until the last couple years. Now they aren’t near as full as they used to be. I’m afraid they are dying. They are approx. 12-13 years old. What can I do to bring them back to health.

    • Mike on said:


      I’m guessing that your trees suffered some winter damage. Not much you can do except prune out any dead branches and trim enough to balance the trees. They might come back spectacularly, I’ve seen it happen, but it can be a multi year process.

  17. Dani on said:

    I planted my sango kaku in my back yard last summer, and it seems to be doing fine. It was in a planter for a few years before that and didn’t grown much. The only problem is that the trunk is only 1 inch thick and the branches are even thinner. Should I fertilize it so that it will grow?

    • Mike on said:


      If you do, use something organic. Regular garden fertilizer will kill it. But I’d never fertilize the plants in my landscape. Never have, they just don’t need it.

  18. Anna on said:

    I have a 30 year old Japanese Red Maple that I just discovered has bores. I had a tree expert tell me it is a weak tree (I am constantly picking up dead branches) and it is dying and I should fertilize it. The leaves are a little sparse at the top and I pruned a couple dozen dead branches from it and am looking for the 10 4 6 fertilizer he said to use but I can’t find it.
    Do I need to fertilize it and what about fertilizing the lawn around it? Do I hold off on the lawn if I fertilize the tree? What do I do about the bores? I am near a marsh and have a clay base.

  19. Linda on said:

    I want to purchase a Japanese Maple from Home Depot or Armstrong but I want to plant it in a huge pot I have. I hear they can grow well in pots, just don’t over water them as they don’t like wet feet. I won’t fertilize it or will use Osmocote now and then but sparingly. I will aerate the soil with Vermiculite etc. Any other suggestions other than part sun part shade?

    • Mike on said:


      It sounds like you have it figured out, but you don’t say where you live. But it should work fine for you.

  20. Melissa on said:

    Hi, we have a Japanese Maple that has leafed out on one branch this year and has two small buds on the trunk, the rest of the tree there is nothing. I tested the soul. It tests low for nitrogen, however I believe the problem is that the tree is sitting in water and not drain. Can it be moved now or do we have to wait until fall? Or can it stay there and suggestions on fixing the drainage issue? It’s in a bed at the end of s sloped yard and has a drip water system near it.

    • Mike on said:


      It needs moved, but that could kill it if it’s been planted for very long. Fixing drainage is not an easy thing to do. Would require french drains or grading.

  21. Melissa on said:

    It’s 2-3 years old

  22. Nancy on said:

    Hello Michael, thanks for the article. I have a weeping Japanese Maple, about 30 plus years old. Every year, in the pass 4-5 years it dies back some. There is ground cover underneath and it is right next to a very large spruce tree, but does get enough sun. Thought it might be competing for water – perhaps the problem. But an arborist suggested fertilizing it. I am thinking if I use the Osmocote it might help, but shouldn’t hurt. Any thoughts? Thank you!

    • Mike on said:


      A bit of Osmocote won’t hurt it, but I never fertilize any of the plants in my landscape. We are still seeing winter damage from those two really hard winters, that could be part of the problem.

  23. Nancy on said:

    Corrected email for previous post. Thank you.

  24. JG on said:

    Hi Mike, I really need your advice. This year our 40+ year old Japanese Lace Leaf Maple tree hardly has much leaves on the top and has sparsely spaced leaves just about 2 1/2 feet from the bottom edges, probably as a result of a bad winter snow (2 + feet for a couple of weeks). We keep our tree pruned so the leaves do not touch the ground; it is about 2 1/2 feet off the ground. Some years I may feed it Osmocote, but this year it looked sickly and may have been fed a little bit of Miracle grow food in early Spring. It still has leaves! Can I revive it by feeding it Osmocote now (July or August 2016)? Thanks in advance for your help.


    • Mike on said:


      The truth is a 40 year old Japanese maple shouldn’t need any supplemental fertilizer. It sounds to me like the tree is in trouble, something is going on with it. Two feet of now really shouldn’t do any harm at all, actually should help insulate the roots of the tree. I don’t think osmocote is going to change anything. When a mature plant is in trouble I like to just prune as needed and give the plant a chance to heel itself.

  25. Paren on said:

    Hi there,

    I have my Japanese Maple planted in the front yard surrounded by lawn. It is early spring in Australia and I have just done an over sow and was going to fertilise the lawn with charlie carp. Should I avoid getting close to the tree or avoid doing it at all?

    • Mike on said:


      I would make a reasonable attempt to stay back from the tree but even if you do get close I’m sure it will be fine.

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