Japanese Maple Diseases

Michael J. McGroarty
Perry, Ohio Copyright 2011

Wanted!  People Who Would Like to Get Paid for Growing
Small Plants at Home  Click here.


Japanese maples are actually pretty tough trees and quite disease resistant.  Usually, if a Japanese maple is failing, or doesn’t look good, it’s not from disease but other issues that are pretty easy to correct.  First let’s look at the things that you can control.

Japanese Maple Failure not Caused by Disease

As soon as somebody has a Japanese maple, or any plant for that matter, that doesn’t look good they immediately think it’s being attacked by some dreaded disease.  In most cases that’s not the case at all.  Contrary to what most people think, Japanese maples are pretty easy to raise and care for.  For the most part they are usually care free plants that happily exist in just about any landscape.  But there are a few things you should know about them.

1.  They don’t like wet feet!  In other words only plant them in good rich soil that drains well.  If you have heavy clay soil that does not drain well you have to make some adjustments to how your tree is planted, but be careful not to make the wrong adjustments.  Many people do it wrong and their tree dies.

In heavy clay soil you should only dig the hole half as deep as the root ball on your tree.  Then set the tree in the hole and fill around and over the root ball with good, rich topsoil.  Keep in mind that the root ball is made up of very loose, porous soil that water can easily drain into.  Make sure you do not dig a hole that will become a bathtub that your plant can drown in.  That’s why I suggest planting only half the root ball in the ground, then building a raised bed around the part that is sticking out of the ground.  When planted high like this your tree will need watered about twice a week, but check the soil near the roots and make sure it’s not soggy before you add more water.

2.  They don’t like wet hair!  Japanese maples don’t like to have their leaves sprayed with water when the sun is out.  The water droplets act as mini magnifying glasses and can leave burnt spots on the leaves.  This isn’t a serious problem and not one that I worry a lot about.  But given a choice water the roots and not the tops.

3.  They don’t like to over eat!  Japanese Maples Do Not Like a Lot of Fertilizer!  In other words, it’s best not to fertilize them at all.  Better to plant them in good rich soil that has a great deal of organic matter, such as composted cow manure worked into the soil before planting.  After planting, if you really feel that you need to fertilize use something organic.

 

Insects and Diseases that can Attack Japanese Maples

 

Pseudomonas syringae

Pseudomonas syringae is a common bacteria that affects many woody plants, including Japanese Maples.  This bacteria is considered opportunistic because it usually attacks plants that have already been damaged by frost or by other means.  Japanese maple leaves can be spotted and the veins within the leaves can be blackened.  This pathogen can cause die back of small branches.  As a collector of Japanese maples for many years I’ve seen little to no evidence of this on any of my plants.  Or at least I haven’t noticed.

Verticillium Wilt

Verticillium Wilt is a disease that can attack Japanese maples.  Symptoms are pretty obvious.  In some cases the leaves on a single branch will discolor and die, but do not fall from the tree.  This often happens in late summer or early fall.  In many cases the branch dies completely and should be completely removed from the tree at first sign of the disease.

How do you know for sure the branch is dead?  This is how you test to see if a plant, or a branch on a plant has died.  Just scratch the bark of the plant with your finger nail.  If the tissue below the bark is green and firm  your plants are fine.  If the tissue is brown and mushy that part of the plant is dead.

Verticillium Wilt is caused by a soil borne fungi but usually attacks plants that have been stressed by other things.  Drought, frost, or wet soil.  There’s really nothing you can do to treat your Japanese maples to prevent this disease and there’s nothing you can apply once they have it.  It’s something that just happens.

Twice I’ve had fairly large branches on my Acer palmatum dissectum maples die back all the way to the trunk of the tree and I have to assume it was caused by Verticillium Wilt.  But what’s really important to note is that even though these two trees lost large branches that had to be cut out, leaving a large hole in the tree, within a couple of years the trees filled back in and are once again nicely shaped and beautiful.  And they’ve stayed healthy since.

Anthracnose

Anthracnose is a fungal type disease that attacks a wide variety of tree and shrub species.   Affected trees will often have spots or scorch like spots on the leaves.  This fungal disease is prevalent during rainy seasons and conditions of high humidity.  This disease remains active on the leaves and twigs that have fallen to the ground and eventually spores are released that can re-attach themselves to the tree or new leaves.  The easiest method of control is to keep dead twigs and leaves raked up from under your trees.  Rainy spring weather tends to perpetuate this disease where hot dry periods can halt the disease.

Powdery Mildew

Powdery Mildew is a fungal disease than can attack Japanese maples. I’ve never seen it on any of my Japanese maples, yet I’ve had bad cases of it on some of my dogwood trees.  Powdery mildew is easy to detect because it covers the upper side of the leaf with a white powdery film.  It thrives in hot, or hot and humid conditions, especially where a lot of plants are grouped together and air circulation is poor.

Soft succulent tissue is more susceptible to this disease so avoid summer applications of nitrogen fertilizers.  I’ve seen heavy infestation of powdery mildew one season and not the next, so it’s not something that I get all worked up about.  Just rake up and dispose of any affected leaves.  It’s best not to put the affected leaves in your compost bin.

Phytophthora Root Rot

Phytophthora is a condition caused by root systems that are too wet.  Plants like Japanese maples and rhododendron are the most susceptible because they are the least likely to tolerate wet heavy soils that do not drain well.  This is one of the biggest problems that I see with Japanese maples in the home landscape.  Soil that does not drain well, or plants that are planted too deeply in the ground.  Even in well drained soil one inch of the root ball should be raised above the existing grade of the bed.  In poorly drained soil I suggest at least half of the root ball be raised above the existing grade, then covered with good rich topsoil.

Aphids

Aphids can and have been known to feed on Japanese maples, but in most cases it’s not a big concern.  Aphids feed by attaching themselves to the leaves of a plant and sucking nutrients out of the leaves.  If there are a number of aphids or if they are there long enough, they can damage the leaves to the point that the leaves curl up and could drop from the plant.  However, aphids have a number of natural predators including lady bugs so they usually don’t last long once they appear.  You can treat for them with an insecticidal soap or rinse them off with a blast of water.

Japanese Maple Scale

Japanese maple scale seems to be a growing problem, mostly on the east coast.  This type of scale insect is known as an armored scale because the insects protect themselves underneath an armored cover that is usually white in color.  They are easy to spot on the stems of trees with dark bark.  Scale insects are a sucking insect that extract plant sap from the host plant.  In plants with heavy infestations premature leaf drop, branch die back, or death of the plant can occur.

Scale insects are somewhat predatory and attack unhealthy plants.  The healthier your plants, the less likely they are to be attacked by scale insects.  If the infestation is not heavy, you can try scrubbing the tree with soapy water and a scrub brush.  On Japanese maples, scale insects usually only attach themselves to the stems of the tree and not the leaves, so scrubbing might actually work.  Since these insects are under this protective armor they are difficult to control.  A systemic insecticide that is applied to the root zone of the plant might work.  Check with your local garden professional.

Borers

Japanese maples can be attacked by borers.  These small insects drill into the stem of a tree and if the infestation is severe, serious damage can be done to the tree.  Inspect the stem of your tree looking for tiny holes and saw dust.  If you find borers you can treat the tree with a systemic insecticide, or there are some borer pastes on the market as well.  Some of the old school gardeners heat up a wire and stick it into the hole while the wire is still quite hot.  Does this work?  I have no idea.

Wanted!  People Who Would Like to Get Paid for Growing
Small Plants at Home  Click here.

71 thoughts on “Japanese Maple Diseases

  1. Pingback: Is My Japanese Maple Dying?

  2. George Kleiman on said:

    My Japanese Maple is about 15 yrs. old and has never had a problem, but this year, I am experiencing severe leaf srying, wilting and leaf drop which started in late July, early August. Is this something that can be corrected?

    • Brett on said:

      Mine is doing the very same thing, same time…..Please help soon( In a Japanese Maple voice).

      • mapletree on said:

        my japanese maple is withered and drying as well….what gives?

    • JP on said:

      Mine is has being doing the same thing! It started in late July with very withered up leaves.. My first thought was it needed water so that’s what I did.. The extra water didn’t help. Now, I have tons of new growth, but all the existing growth has turn brown and is falling… Any info would be great. I am located in Oklahoma.

  3. cfa practice exam on said:

    I am glad for writing to let you understand what a fantastic discovery my friend’s child experienced reading yuor web blog. She noticed plenty of pieces, with the inclusion of how it is like to possess an incredible teaching heart to let other individuals completely fully grasp chosen multifaceted subject areas. You actually did more than her desires. Thank you for supplying those powerful, trusted, edifying and even unique thoughts on your topic to Kate.

  4. George on said:

    Since the new growth this spring only about a third of the leaves have fully grown, the other is struggling to grow. There are plenty of small fly type insect on them and when you you stand underneath the tree you feel some type of water dropping on you. Help?

    • Mike on said:

      Charlie,

      Thank you! As you can see I don’t get all caught up in grammar. It’s not my thing. Does that tool that used also evaluate the quality of the information provided based on how useful it is to the end user, or does the tool estimate the time it takes a guy like me to make one blog post then prepare that post to send to my list? Just curious. -Mike McGroarty

  5. Pam DeMatteo-Linn on said:

    Only about 1/4 of my Japanese Maple tree leaves have appeared this year. Should I assume those bare branches are dead?

    • Mike on said:

      Pam,

      This is how you test to see if a plant, or a branch on a plant has died. Just scratch the bark of your plants with your finger nail. If the tissue below the bark is green and firm your plants are fine. If the tissue is brown and mushy that part of the plant is dead.

  6. Rosanne Matheson on said:

    I have a 10 year old Japanese Maple, “Bloodgood”, and the bark is peeling on the large branches, and one large branch has died. Help? Do you know what is causing this?

    • Mike on said:

      Rosanne,

      It could be winter damage. I’ve seen really hard freezes blow the bark off Japanese maples. But I’ve only seen it happen here in Ohio one time. My tree was devastated one winter, look terrible for two years, then it bounced back wonderfully. Just trim away the loose bark.

  7. Linda Day on said:

    Our beautiful Japanese Maple is 4 yrs. old. This spring, just half of the tree has leaves! The other half looks like buds started, but dried up before having a chance to bloom. I really don’t want to lose this tree. My husband wants to cut the “dead” half of the tree off, but when I scratch the branches, there is still some green there, so I’m making him hold off. Can you help?
    Thanks so much.

    • Mike on said:

      Linda,

      I’d hold off until those branches are no longer green. If they tissue below the bark stays nice and green, it should make new leaves. If it turns brown the branch is dead. Just remove the dead branch and give the tree time to fill back in.

    • Audrey Stehle on said:

      I have just discovered multiple spots of missing bark on a maple tree that is over 10 years old. The range in size from about an inch long and wide to spots as big a my hand.

      They are located on both small and large branches and seem to have occurred recently. I pass this tree multiple times daily but have been out of town for two weeks so they could have occurred while I was away.

      There are also a few small dead limbs. What is causing this condition and what should I do about it?

  8. lee on said:

    Hi my maple has no leafs on it this year.There seems to be little buds but dose not look as though its going to flower.Also on the main stem its looking a little bit white near the bottom could you please give me a little advice please thanks

    • Mike on said:

      Lee,

      No leaves if everything else has leafed out is not a good sign. This is how you test to see if a plant, or a branch on a plant has died. Just scratch the bark of your plants with your finger nail. If the tissue below the bark is green and firm your plants are fine. If the tissue is brown and mushy that part of the plant is dead.

  9. Kathy stone on said:

    I did the fingernail test and the branches were an off white color, no green but, hard not mussy. What does this mean.

  10. Kathy stone on said:

    Did the fingernail test. No green or dark color but, an off white color. Hard but, not mussy. What does this mean.

  11. Dee on said:

    My J. Maple is approx. 20 yrs old. Over the past few years the top center has thinned out to the point the heavens are quite visible as opposed to my other 2 which are quite thick. I check’d leaves no evidence of disease/insects, but many high up dead branches that I can’t get to. Water table here was way below average, recent rains have brought levels almost back to normal. I sure don’t won’t to lose this majestic tree, any suggestions Mike or is this a wait n see kinda thing?

  12. Sian on said:

    Hi.

    I was just watering my lovely acer and noticed some odd lesions on the trunk near the ground. Round little circles which are raised up off the bark by powdery white substance underneath them. I am very worried its fungus or parasite. What can I do?

  13. Norman Kozlarek on said:

    May I send you a photo of my Japanese Maple that is losing its bark?

    Thanks

  14. Joan Kuhlmann on said:

    I have had a Japenese maple for the past 3 years and it has done well. It leafed out nice this spring and looked good and then just in the past two days all of the leaves have shriveled up but have not fallen from the tree. Help!! I don’t want to lose this tree

  15. Christie on said:

    Our Japanese maple has a lot of wasps and yellow jackets on it. No hives on the tree just bees. Any suggestions?

  16. Lynda on said:

    My Japanese maple is only 2 years old.

    It’s had a couple of problems that I have managed to resolve, but since the spring this year, in Glasgow, the plant has deteriorated.
    Several branches have died and others are still alive and active, but the new shoots are withering as soon as they form.
    The plant now looks spindly with leaves that look unhealthy.
    Can you help?

    • Mike on said:

      Lynda,

      It could be too wet or planted too deep.

  17. shirley lemons on said:

    i have a new japanese red maple planted last yr….the leaves come out, start turning brown then shrivel up. the tops of many branches have turned gray and I have cut many small dead ones off….could it be the staying too wet problem?

    • Mike on said:

      Shirely,

      Most definitely too wet can be a problem.

  18. Bob on said:

    My New Moon Japanese Maple has a area in the center of the tree where the leaves have all turned brown,not centralized to a stem. Seems like a spider mite issue, but have not seem this before. Any help would be appreciated
    Thanks

  19. Lynda on said:

    My Japenese Maple has been attacked by spider mites.

    It was slowly dying with the leaves shrivelling and new growth starting but then dying.

    Of all the things I thought it might be, this was the last thing! The tiny almost invisable webs were what prompted me to research more.

    I have sprayed the maple and another ornamental plant that is also infected. I will just have to wait and see if it is indeed to late to save them.

  20. Kathy Schmidt on said:

    Help!! My Japanese Maple tree is 3 years old. This year the leaves came out as usual, however they now are wilted and dry. Is there anything I can do to save the tree? I think our soil is more on the clay side and we have had more rain than usual. Thanks.

    • Mike on said:

      Kathy,

      It could be too wet or planted too deep. You need to find a way to lift it if possible so the roots can breath.

  21. clive everitt on said:

    one of my acers has a white powdery substance on the main stem just above the soil is this some sort of fungus

    • Mike on said:

      Clive,

      It probably is. Wipe it away and try and keep that part of the tree as dry as possible. You can also spray a general fungicide.

  22. Julia on said:

    Mike,

    My little maple leafed out beautifully this year, but several weeks ago it mysteriously started looking like it was dying! The leaves have gotten brown and crunchy, like they are burned, with some strange white puffy cotton under some leaves. The white puffy cotton has little spots in it like eggs. There area also adult insects that look like the tiniest white moth you’ve ever seen. Please please help me rescue my little tree! Any advice is welcome. She is not dead because much of her trunk is still green. She is also trying to bud out a few new leaves.

    • Mike on said:

      Julia,

      I’d spray the insects and see if that helps.

  23. Joy on said:

    I have a acer palmatum (Japanese maple) that has two large black areas on the trunk. One has begun to dry up. What causes this and how can I treat or do I need to treat?

    • Mike on said:

      Joy,

      I don’t think I have an answer for you.

  24. CJ Muchhala on said:

    I have 2 4-year old dwarf Japanese maples which have thrived until this year. They’re fully branched out & leafed, but the leaves are curling & turning orange. I first noticed this in June.

  25. Joe Cheshier on said:

    My Green Japanese maple has Small spider web Pockets. there are very small butterfly looking insects on the tree also. They are eating the leaves. I would like to know what to spray this with.

    • Mike on said:

      Joe,

      Any general insecticide should work.

  26. Mary Ferracciolo on said:

    My Red Japanese Maple was hurt by a Michigan frost last year but seems to be recovering, however the leaves are turning green. It looks like it needs furtilizer but I have never had to feed it in the past. It has always been the envy of all who saw it. Can you please advise?.

    • Mike on said:

      Mary,

      If the leaves were red, but turned green later in the summer I’d just leave it alone. If the green leaves are growing from the base of the tree in only certain spots they are suckers and have to be removed all the way back to the stem of the tree.

  27. Andy on said:

    My 15 year old Japanese maple has a some sort of disease or fungus at its base. The bark has opened and there is a liquid running out of the area exposed. The leaves of the tree do not look very healthy this year. Its has the appearance of looking sick and waning. Is there anything I can do to treat it. I did spread a decent amount of compost around it this spring after I noticed the problem.

    • Mike on said:

      Andy,
      I’d clean up the stem of the tree and trim the bark around the opening so there are no jagged edged or loose bark. You want a smooth transition from the bark to the exposed wood so water does not collect in the wound. Other than that I’m I’d just give it time and hope for the best.

  28. Sue Tyldesley on said:

    I have two Japanese Maple trees in tubs. One is fine but the other ones leaves have curled and shrivelled all over the tree. Do you know what this could be and could this disease transfer to the other healthy one . Thanks.

    • Mike on said:

      Sue,

      Make sure the roots are not too wet. This does happen sometimes for no apparent reason and I don’t consider it contagious.

  29. jdwhite on said:

    I have an Acer palmatum with a crusty black growth or residue at the base of the tree. Some of the upper growth is also dying. It is a old tree, not sure of age, but its large for a Japanese Maple. I want to save this beautiful old tree, any help is welcome.

    • Mike on said:

      JD,

      About all I cans suggest is that you clean up the tree best you can and see if there is damage to the tree from the mold or what ever it is that is on your tree. Nothing something I’ve ever seen on Japanese maples.

  30. Gregory Moore on said:

    Hello,
    Glad to have found your page on this topic: I live in NYC and just moved into an apartment with a large, sunny outdoor space. The first thing I got was a 6 1/2′ tall, very healthy looking Japanese Maple. I planted it in the largest tub I could find–around 2′ deep and about 3′ across. After a glorious summer, suddenly nearly all the leaves started browning, then getting covered with (what I’ve now learned is called) Powdery Mildew. What, would you say is the best, simplest treatment? I’ve seen wildly varying ideas on the web. Have you heard of using Epsom Salts as a treatment (due to the high sulfur content)? Would it be applied topically or to the root system–or both? My tree is in serious distress…and it would really be a drag if it died…and if I told you what I paid for it, you’d understand why! But more than the money, I don’t want to lost this exquisite tree….HELP! And thanks!

  31. Jessica on said:

    I have a newly planted crimson Japanese maple that I i absolutely love in need of help! I planted it in the spring this year and it looked great for a couple months but now all the leaves turned white in the middle and the tips shriveled and brown. It is also loosing leaves and it looked very wilted. If it is powdery mildew or a scale how can I help it or cure it. Thank you!

  32. Martin Mayer on said:

    my jap maple is 10 years old, since the last 3 years it has less and less leaves, they are smaller, and they tend to be at the tips of the branches. This winter I pruned it by 1/3 and you can see it wants to have strong leave growth now this spring, but the leaves are very tiny, and do not continue to grow. The pH value is slightly acidic, I use organic matter and slow release fertilizer, it is on sand stone, semi shade.
    I cannot detect an insect, but what I noticed is that the branches have some sort of greyish crust where the leaves are, not sure if this is any insect, or fungus or what?
    Martin, Sydney
    Australia

  33. Nancy on said:

    question –
    My beautiful tree has pale green spots all over the bark – trunk and branches. It’s winter – no leaves.
    thanks!

  34. Mona Estrada on said:

    My japenese maple is over 40 years old! It’s one of the most beautiful trees I’ve seen this size … It’s leAves are all dried n brown . It’s looks like it also has a green fungus like growth that started wen the rain started. I hate to lose it! It’s been very dry here in Cali. Please give me an idea of how to save it!

  35. Jenny on said:

    Hey there Mike,
    I planted what I believe is a Bloodgood Japanese Maple (has bronzy purple leaves that turn more reddish in fall) approx 8 ft from the corner of my house on a 6″ raised bed. That was 7 years ago and it just thrives there (gets only morning-early afternoon hot Georgia sun, not much wind, good drainage, etc). Problem is I am afraid that the roots will get into my septic (tank is about 12 ft away on a slightly lower level) not to mention my house foundation. Should I try to transplant it? (it is around 8 ft tall as I keep pruning it off every year to try to keep it smaller, hoping this might help control the roots?).
    Jenny

  36. Stephanie on said:

    I have a sanko gecko that is about 8 ft tall, I planted it about 3 1/2 yrs ago. This spring it leafed out then some of them look like they are dying. The truck of the tree is also black about 2/3 up from the ground. Any ideas of what might be bothering it? We had a pretty harsh winter here for our area. Thanks

  37. Tori on said:

    My two year old Maple has shoots growing from the ground there are buds and some leaves but the top part is just sticks is it dying or do I just let it grow?

  38. Nadine on said:

    I Have a Japanese maple Doesn’t Have But 5 Leaves on it this year its 5 years old Alot of the branches look like they are dead and I have trimed it back some but it is sobare this year.I have hostas under this tree and a couple tulips could that be stopping the growth of leaves?

  39. Paul Rosenstrach on said:

    Hello Michael, I have a beautiful Japanese Maple, about 80 years old or older. I had a bluestone patio put in adjacent to it 2 summers ago. Last year the tree was fine. This year only half the branches have leaves. I fear I may have done the poor arbor in by putting in the patio. Is there any hope for my tree? What should I do? Thanks. Paul

  40. Sandy Smith on said:

    There are a lot of withered leaves on my Japanese Maple. Do I need to leave to wilted leave on my maple or should I just let them naturally drop off? I do see signs of new leaves appearing on the tree.

  41. Linda Cholette on said:

    I have a red Japanese maple that is about 15 years old and has always been very healthy. We were out of town from April 1 to May 4 and when we came home we noticed that the maple had absolutely NO leaves on it and could not see any leaves fallen on the ground either. This tree was totally healthy and thriving when we left!! I just now did your test of scraping a branch with my finger nail and the colour beneath is beige but not green. Yikes – am still at a loss. Please help!

  42. Jimmy P on said:

    Hello,
    I have a lot potted and a lot died this year. I think they got fungus. Do you have anything to prevent the fungus disease? Thanks

  43. dan jordan on said:

    my maple is losing its bark, but after reading this, I’ll just keep my eye on it. but I will have to check the baby maple I planted up front for drainage.
    I enjoyed reading your info

  44. Neal & Sherie Marbry on said:

    All of my Japanese Maples of different varieties from seedlings to grafted 2 year trees. They were growing fine with beautiful leaves, now all of the sudden all the new growth on all of the trees have deformed leaves. They are not wilting nor turning brown. Still a beautiful red color, still growing bigger but the oddest shapes I’ve ever seen. Looks like something from outer space on the tops and normal red Japanese maples at the start. What in the world happened? HELP!

  45. Gillian Christy on said:

    Hi I have had a Japanese maple for over ten years and this summer its had some branches that haven’t got any leaves on…now I notice its got small white cotton wool blobs with a flat object in the middle could you tell me what it is?
    Jill

  46. Kim on said:

    I don’t know how old my dwarf Japaneese maple is but we had the polar vortex a few times this winter. My tree has lots of leaves but there are large white spots on the leaves that go all the way threw the leaf. At first I mistakenly took it for beetles and spread 7 all over it but the spots are white not holes.

  47. Doug on said:

    My bloodgood Japanese Maple has many of its leaves with many little holes as if it is being eaten by insects, but I find no insects on the plant. We just purchased it about a month ago and maybe I didn’t notice it had this problem until recently. Know what this is?

  48. Janice on said:

    For 20 years we’ve had a Japanese maple in perfect health. For the last two years the tree’s leaves have started curling and burning up in early June. This Spring considerable dead branches had to be cut back. The rest of the tree bloomed out normally, but within a month the leaves did the same thing as last year. New growth is replacing where the dead leaves have fallen off. The tips of those leaves are now going through the same process. Is there any hope for this tree or is it destined to die??? Please help!!

  49. Phillip Bloom on said:

    I have a Japanese maple in deep distress. This spring the tree began to come out with the normal foliage-the
    leaves were the normal yellow coloration with a bit of a ruddy cast. The tree is approximately 6.5ft and is located in a pottery container-27″wide by 24″ deep.
    There are 2 1″ drain holes.
    Suddenly about mid-July the leaves began to dry-up
    severely. Can it be saved? I’ll await your reply.

  50. Lynda Wilson on said:

    My Japanese Maple got some over spray from a liquid cleaner, now it has spots all over it, I washed it as soon as I found the spots. What else can I do to insure it doesn’t die. It’s only 11″ tall

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>